Additional investigations may be warranted if there are specific concerns.8
- Hematological and biochemical analysis
The hematological and biochemical analysis may include the following determinations: hemogram, protein metabolism (albumin and prealbumin), iron metabolism, zinc levels as well as Ca, P, Mg, ALP, PTH, vitamin D and B12, folic acid, Na, K, urea, Cr, glycemia and liver enzymes. Haematological and biochemical analysis should be carried out on an annual basis.
- Bone Mineral Density (BMD)
BMD should be considered because of a risk of osteoporosis, which may further worsen the skeletal condition.
- Observation of ingestion and videofluoroscopy (to assess the presence of dysphagia).
- 24-Hour pH-metry (to assess the presence of GORD).
- Endoscopy (to assess the presence of oesophagitis).