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Vomiting is described as the involuntary forceful muscular expulsion of gastric contents.1 It should not be confused with reflux or regurgitation, which are more passive, effortless actions that usually occur before an infant’s esophagus is fully developed.2
What causes vomiting in infants?
- In newborns and infants, a food allergy, e.g. Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA)
- A stomach infection, e.g. gastroenteritis, where vomiting is often accompanied by diarrhea and carries the risk of dehydration3
Other causes include gastro-oesophageal reflux, a reaction to a medicine, intestinal obstruction and metabolic disorders.4
Vomiting as a symptom of Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy
In newborns and infants, vomiting is a common symptom of CMPA.5,6 Clinically, it may present both as an immediate (within minutes)7 or a late (few days to a week) reaction.5 Approximately 50% of infants with CMPA present with vomiting as a symptom.8,9
Signs and symptoms related to CMPA
The majority of infants affected with CMPA have at least two symptoms affecting at least two different organ systems.10,11
Having an awareness of the most common symptoms of CMPA can help you to make an earlier diagnosis of CMPA in your patients.
1. Lightdale JR., et al. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1684–95
2. Marseglia L., et al. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21(28): 8508–15
3. Guarino A., et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;59:132–52
4. Vomiting in the Pediatric Age Group. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/711641_3 (Accessed March 2016)
5. Koletzko S., et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55(2):221–9
6. Ravelli AM., et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32:59–64
7. Vandenplas Y., et al. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:902–08
8. Klemola T., et al. J Pediatr. 2002;140(2):219–24
9. Hill DJ., et al. Clin Allergy. 1988;18(5)481–90
10. Lifschitz C. and Szajewska H. Eur J Pediatr. 2015;174:141–50
11. Høst A. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1994;5:1–36